PLEIADES & PERSEPHASSA – Iannis Xenakis

It has been said several times that, thanks to percussion, Xenakis reintroduced the problem of rhythm that was thought to have disappeared from contemporary music.
Architect, engineer and composer, this genius of composition writes music whose complex and harmonious structure contrasts with the explosive energy that comes out of it.
The Percussions de Strasbourg are proud to have collaborated so closely with this composer who dedicated to them the works Persephassa (1969) and Pléiades (1979), which have become a must in the field of percussion. 

In 2022, we celebrate the Centenary of the composer as well as the Sixtieth birthday of Les Percussions de Strasbourg.

PROGRAM 1 : AU COEUR DU SON (CONCERT SPATIALISE POUR 6 PERCUSSIONNISTES)
PERSEPHASSA – Iannis Xenakis (1969) 35′ 

KORE – Carmine Emanuele Cella (2019)  25′  

Being in the heart of the sound is a dream for man, redefining its space, its distribution is a challenge for composers. In this program, the audience is the central player : the Percussions de Strasbourg musicians are on six stages all around the audience. Closing one’s eyes and getting caught up in the sound, realizing that the entire body becomes a sound sensor. Everything turns into sensations, discoveries, suspensions. An amazing sound world, much wider than what our eyes claim to see…

Iannis XENAKIS – Persephassa (1969)
Creation : 9 september 1969 at the Persepolis Festival (Iran) by les Percussions de Strasbourg
Commission : French Ministry of Culture and Persepolis Festival

« Xenakis, the architect of sound, was firmly convinced that there was no justification for sound to come from only one direction. According to him, the usual arrangement of a concert, where the music comes from the front, is only one possibility among others. » Guildo Fischer

Persephassa has established itself as a definitive classic in the percussion repertoire. It was premiered in 1969 in Iran by its dedicatees, the Percussions de Strasbourg.
The title Persephassa refers to the goddess Persephone, or Kore, personification of the telluric forces and transmutations of life. These are linked to the cosmic cycles of living species and to man in particular, the basis being period, iteration, the very essence of number theory and mathematics. This is the underlying reason for the role of percussion, which also symbolized telluric and celestial activities.
At the time of its creation, Xenakis proposed new instruments, the wooden or metal simantras, already used in Orestia and whose original idea can be found in the simandres of the Greek convents, «real nests of an ancestral rhythm not yet destroyed by Radio, Television or invasions».
The 6 percussionists are placed in a ring around the audience, which is thus enclosed in these currents carried by the music. The trajectories cross or evolve according to a sound choreography staged by the composer. Before a game of increasing and decreasing waterfalls, rhythms twirling in space and chaotic clouds of sound unfolds, the sextet’s timpani rolls call Persephassa in an incantation. Through a progressive acceleration, the music will transport the audience in a gigantic whirlwind. If this «tourniquet» evokes the dance of whirling dervishes, Xenakis does not aim at trance: sudden cuts, brief but unpredictably distributed, bring the listener out of his torpor at the end.

Carmine Emanuele CELLA – Kore (2019), in mirror with Persephassa
Creation : 9 october 2019 at Hangar Bicocca, Festival Milano Musica.
The composer has received a grant for the writing of an original musical piece from the French Ministry of Culture

Kore is a piece of 6 percussionists using smart-instruments scattered around the audience. It takes its inspiration from the Xenakis’ masterpiece Persephassa and aims to extend the possibilities found by Carmine-Emanuele Cella when he created Inside out, performed by the Percussions de Strasbourg at IRCAM in 2017. In Persephassa, the musicians use a large range of instruments and sound effects during the piece, among which wood blocks called simantras, that were conceived on purpose for this piece. In Inside out, many changes of paradigms have been made in the continuation with Xenakis’ research. With the help of new electronic devices used on large size instruments, Carmine-Emanuele Cella managed to create a new global and physical instrument around the audience, played collectively by all the musicians. These devices still had a primitive form then, but they presented an extreme potential in terms of conception of the timbre and interaction man-instrument. The piece was a big success. With Kore, Carmine-Emanuele Cella develops ce process. The percussions should be big enough to make the system efficient (such as timbals, bass drum, tam-tam, etc.) and the percussionists should be displayed around the audience, in the spirit of Xenakis’s Persephassa. In addition, again inspired by Xenakis, Kore deploys 6 new instruments called Xulon based on the technology developed for Inside out. The main characteristics of Xulon are that they can completely transform the sound and the interaction of the musician depending on the gesture. This process creates augmented instruments that can fully integrate the listening space, merging the immersiveness of the global electronics with the location of the source and creating a new paradigm for listening to the electronic sound     

PROGRAMME 2 : RECITAL FOR 6 PERCUSSIONNISTES
PLEIADES – Iannis Xenakis (1979) 45′ 

WHIPLASH – Stéphane Magnin (2017)  35′                          

First of all, there is one of the most important percussion ensembles in France and in the world, which is experiencing an exciting revival. Then, there are six musicians who lacerated the silence of their whips in a gesture of a great theatricality with Whiplash by Stéphane Magnin. Then there is Pleiades, one of the most beautiful pieces written by Iannis Xenakis. The richness of the timbres, the freedom and the coherence of the composition make this work a unique rhythmic adventure.

Iannis XENAKIS – Pléiades (1969) 45′
Commission : Ville de Strasbourg
Dédicatees : Les Percussions de Strasbourg
Re-creation : 24.06.2011 with Ensemble l’Abrupt – Alban Richard, Festival Montpellier Danse, Opéra du Rhin

The Pleiades usually evoke the cluster of sparkling stars in the right shoulder of the Taurus constellation. In the northern hemisphere, the Pleiades are only visible in winter. A telescope allows us to observe dozens of stars, of which only six are visible to the naked eye, as well as a light milky fog in the same area. According to Greek mythology, this cluster of stars represents the seven sisters or Pleiades, servants of Artemis, Goddess of the Moon. One of the sisters, Electra, is said to have disappeared as a comet, eaten away with grief after the siege and destruction of the city of Troy built by her son Dardanus, victim of the famous Trojan Horse ploy. The whiteness and fog in which the Pleiades appear would be the result of the tears shed by the six sisters abandoned by Electra. Thus, the title Pléiades refers to the six members of the Percussions de Strasbourg. But for Xenakis, the reference to the multiplicity of existence seems more important. 

The very essence of this piece rests on the fact that it is not limited to a simple definition. The instruments used range from keyboards (vibraphone and marimba), to various percussion instruments and the «sixxen» – a percussion instrument specially created for this composition. 

The piece is divided into four parts whose titles refer to the materials used to make the instruments and the sounds they produce: «Mélanges» performed simultaneously by various percussion instruments, then «Métaux», «Claviers» and «Peaux». Listening to the sixxen in «Métaux», one immediately thinks of the gamelan of Indonesia, especially those from Bali, the instruments used in festive music in Japan, the chimes of churches in the Mediterranean basin and the cowbells of the Alps. The richness of timbre of the sixxen is in a way an expression of the different types of life led by man, of which metals are an integral part. 

While giving absolute freedom to the concept of a multiplicity of existence, Xenakis has been able to impose a rule of diversity and unity in the temporal structure of his research towards the creation of a single composition.

Stéphane Magnin – Whiplash (2017) – 35′ in mirror with Pléiades
Commission : Percussions de Strasbourg

Whiplash, everything could fit in a second. A radical face to face, light/silence, sound/darkness, hide/show… A time contracted to the extreme in a suspended clap… The whip, a percussion instrument composed of two articulated and percussive wooden blades, imitates the clacking of the weapon that bears the same name. Six musicians in front of the stage (percussionists having left their usual instrumental hideout), standing, facing the audience, motionless, silent. Theater without story, dramaturgy without character, setting in body of the sound production. The sound-gesture of a whiplash – whiplash – whistle of air punctuated by a dry slap imprints its mark and becomes the basic material of the work. 

By association, the score brings together instruments that respond to the acoustic characteristics of these two sound families: the «air sound» and/or spun and the «dry slap». 

The musical purpose, neither illustrative nor with a message, starts from this strong sound gesture and transposes it into the abstraction of writing, rhythm, aesthetics, poetics, playing, without forcing the line. 

Whiplash, as a symbol of verticality, of the violence of power, of its declensions: training, aggression, harassment, punishment, persecution, torture, punishment, execution. The emotional charge made of accumulated tensions will find its outlet through the transposition of the whiplash in the violent crackling of the sound of saturated metals spun by the enormous slap of the overpowering skins.

Downloads